Oracle’s Password File: remote_login_passwordfile

Oracle’s password file helps you to authenticate the database until the instance has been started. As you can guess, the password cannot be saved in DB , because DBAs will not be able to access database until instance is started.

There are two methods to authentication the DBA:

1. OS authentication.

2. Password file authentication.

The initialization parameter remote_login_passwordfile indicates which method should be used.

Available Values:

1. NONE : No password file is used.  Authentication happens via OS.

2. EXCLUSIVE: This is a default value. Password file can only be used by one database. It enables you to grant SYSDBA or SYSOPER privileges to the users other than SYS. You are also able to change their passwords, which can’t be done in SHARED mode.

Note: Entries in password file is created automatically when you grant SYSDBA or SYSOPER privileges to the user. If user has any of these privileges, entry exists in password file. If you revoke  both of them entry will be deleted automatically.

To check what user entries are located in passwordfile:

select * from v$pwfile_users;

3. SHARED: Means password file is shared and one or more database can use it. But this also means that ONLY SYS user can be added to the password file. And you are not able to change its password.  

Note: Password file can contain non-SYS users, only if they were added before the value of this parameter has been changed to SHARED.

Note:  In Real Application Clusters each instance must have the same value.

Password file is created with the orapwd.

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Could not validate ASMSNMP password due to…During DB creation

If you are creating database using DBCA and came across the following error:

Screenshot-Database Configuration Assistant

Do the following:

bash-3.2$ . oraenv
ORACLE_SID = [RDBMS] ? +ASM
The Oracle base for ORACLE_HOME=/u02/app/11.2.0/grid is /u01/app/oracle
bash-3.2$ sqlplus / as sysasm

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Mon May 21 18:59:20 2012

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle.  All rights reserved.
Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – 64bit Production
With the Automatic Storage Management option

SQL> create user ASMSNMP identified by testpas1;
create user ASMSNMP identified by testpas1
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01990: error opening password file ‘/u02/app/11.2.0/grid/dbs/orapw’

SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – 64bit Production
With the Automatic Storage Management option
bash-3.2$ echo $ORACLE_HOME
/u02/app/11.2.0/grid
bash-3.2$ cd /u02/app/11.2.0/grid/dbs/
bash-3.2$ orapwd file=orapw+ASM password=testpas1 entries=2
bash-3.2$ ls
ab_+ASM.dat  hc_+ASM.dat  init+ASM.ora  init.ora  orapw+ASM  spfile+ASM.ora
bash-3.2$ sqlplus / as sysasm

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Mon May 21 19:01:20 2012

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle.  All rights reserved.
Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – 64bit Production
With the Automatic Storage Management option

SQL> create user ASMSNMP identified by testpas1;

User created.

SQL> grant sysdba to ASMSNMP;

Grant succeeded.

That’s it. Re-run DBCA.

Candidate ASM disks not showing

If you are in the middle of grid installation, and trying to create ASM disk group but Eligible(Candidate) disks location is empty, for example like this:Screenshot-Create Disk Group

moreover you have configured candidate disks using /etc/init.d/oracleasm and listdisks command showing the disk.

bash-3.2$ /etc/init.d/oracleasm listdisks

VOL1

Then follow my steps that may help:

1. Click “Change Disk Discovery Path” button

2. Enter the path /dev/oracleasm/disks and click OK

Screenshot-Change Disk Discovery Path

3. The picture should look like this:

Screenshot-Create Disk Group-1

That’s it. GOOD LUCK!

PL/SQL developer error_Could not initialize oci.dll

If you have the following error after trying to connect database using PL/SQL Developer

image

It means that you don’t have 32bits client installed.

Install 32bits client instead of 64bits version.

I hope, this simple solution will help you. Good Luck!

Install Guest Additions_use Shared Folders

Let’s assume that we have Linux as a guest OS.

1. Install Guest Additions…

image

2. There will appear disk called like “VBOXADDITIONS_4.1.10_76836”. Copy content of the disk to another folder like this.

# mkdir /root/Desktop/addition

# cp /media/VBOXADDITIONS_4.1.10_76836  /root/Desktop/addition

# cd  /root/Desktop/addition

# sh ./VBoxLinuxAdditions.run

It will install guest additions.

Now reboot the system.

To use shared folder do this:

1.

image

2. Click add

image

3.

image

4.

image

5. Mount the content of shared folder to guest directory, like this:

# mkdir /0

# sudo mount -t vboxsf rpm /0

Desired content will be located in /0.